R&D intensity, that is, expenditures on R&D as the share of GDP, amounted to 0.90% in 2012 in comparison with 0.60 % in 2008. In 2011 Poland held 19th position among the European Union Member States with regard to R&D intensity which was 2.7 times lower than a score for the whole EU.
The share of intramural expenditures on R&D of the business enterprise sector in total gross domestic expenditures amounted to 37.2 % in 2012 (BERD=5.3 bln PLN). Expenditures of this sector on R&D as the share of GDP increased from 0.19 % in 2008 to 0.33 % in 2012. Funds of domestic enterprises accounted for 32.3 %. (4.6 bln PLN) of funds incurred on R&D. Business enterprises primarily used own funds for financing R&D – 78.0 %. The business enterprise sector incurred 207.4 thousand PLN/FTE per 1 employee, of which government funds constituted 22.2 thousand PLN/FTE.
The share of intramural expenditures on R&D of the government sector in total gross domestic expenditures amounted to 28.0 % in 2012 (GOVERD=4.0 bln PLN). Expenditures of scientific institutes of the Polish Academy of Sciences and research institutes incurred on research and experimental development constituted 27.54 % of total GERD, of which scientific institutes of the PAS accounted for 9.2 % and research institutes – 18.2 %. These entities received 38.5 % of all direct government grants allocated to research and experimental development.
Scientific institutes of the PAS incurred 209.4 thousand PLN/FTE per 1 employee, of which government funds constituted 164.3 thousand PLN/FTE, while research institutes incurred 175.5 thousand PLN/ FTE per 1 employee, of which government funds constituted 106.9 thousand PLN/FTE.
The share of intramural expenditures on R&D of the higher education sector in total gross domestic expenditures amounted to 34.41 % in 2012 (HERD=4.9 bln PLN). Expenditures on R&D were incurred by 105 out of 132 (79.5 %) public higher education institutions operating at the beginning of the academic year 2012/2013 as well as 105 out of 331 (31.7 %) private higher education institutions did so. Government funds were the main source of funding research and experimental development in the higher education sector, they constituted 72.1 % of the total funding. The European Commission funds and government funds assigned to joint co-financing of the EU projects had the biggest impact on expenditures on R&D in the higher education sector institutions, including public higher education institutions (20.1 % of total funds of HES entities and 20.8 % of the public higher education institutions, respectively). Expenditures per 1 employee in the higher education sector incurred amounted to 115.2 thousand PLN/FTE in 2012, of which government funds accounted for 82.6 thousand PLN/FTE.
The share of intramural expenditures on R&D of the private non-profit sector in total gross domestic expenditures in 2012 was marginal and amounted to 0.4 % (PNP=0.01 bln PLN).
Intramural expenditures on biotechnology R&D amounted to 580.4 mln PLN in 2012, accounting for 4.0 % of the total R&D expenditures in Poland. Biotechnology R&D was conducted by 6253 persons, that is, 4.5 % of the total R&D personnel. Nanotechnology intramural expenditures on R&D amounted to 566.5 mln PLN (3.9 % of expenditures on R&D in Poland) and 3557 persons (2.5 % of total R&D personnel) were engaged in this activity.
In 2012 the number of persons employed in R&D in Poland amounted to 139.7 thousand, including 103.6 thousand researchers. Employment in R&D measured in full-time equivalents amounted to 90.7 thousand FTEs, including 67.0 thousand FTEs for researchers.
5.3 per 1000 persons employed worked in R&D (in FTE) in 2012. This indicator was over two times lower than for the whole European Union in 2012 (12.2). In 2011 Poland held 24th position among the EU Member States with regard to employment in R&D (in FTE) per 1000 persons employed and 23rd position with regard to employment of researchers 9in FTE) per 1000 persons employed. Intramural expenditures per 1 employee amounted to 158.2 thou. PLN/FTE.
The number of persons who constituted human resources in science and technology (HRST) amounted to 7.5 mln in 2012. The most important group constituting HRST core, that is, individuals who have successfully completed tertiary education and are employed in a science and technology occupation, consisted of 3.1 mln persons.
In 2012 the highest expenditures fell on engineering and technology – 6.9 bln PLN, natural sciences – 3.4 bln PLN, medical sciences – 1.9 bln PLN. The remaining sciences (agricultural, social and humanities) received about 2.2 bln PLN. Expenditures per 1 employee in engineering and technology amounted to 191.1 thousand PLN/FTE, in natural sciences – 179.0 thousand PLN/FTE, in medical sciences – 165.4 thousand PLN/FTE, in agricultural sciences – 128.5 thousand PLN/FTE, in social sciences – 79.2 thousand PLN/FTE and in humanities – 77.8 thousand PLN/FTE.
More: Ministry of Science and Higher Education (http://www.nauka.gov.pl), GUS